The signposts in your introduction should indicate:
You may also wish to:
Throughout an essay you will probably use two types of signposting: small and large scale.
1. Large Scale signposting tells the reader specifics about what is to come or what has gone before, for example:
'Having discussed the arguments in favour of the Third Way, it is also necessary to consider its limitations'.
2. Small scale signposts are individual words or short phrases which help to signal direction, such as:
Look at the verbs you have used in your introduction (eg, suggest, discuss, argue). In your introduction, these will probably have been used in the future tense. In your conclusion, you could use the same verbs but in the past tense.
The conclusion should remind your reader of the line of reasoning you have guided them through, and how your essay has answered the original question.
When introducing quotes or referring to other people's work, think about the verbs you can use. These can act as signposts to the reader in terms of how you feel about the theories or ideas you are discussing.
Shoolbred (2013) demonstrates...
Cooper (2014) claims...
Verbs like 'shows' or 'demonstrates' give the impression that you are endorsing a scholar's viewpoint, whereas verbs like 'asserts' or 'claims' indicate that you might be about to challenge their perspective. Never use a verb like 'proves' if that person did not actually prove something. Additionally, be careful with words like 'portrays' and 'conveys'. Find out their exact meaning and use them wisely.