Referencing your sources properly is an integral part of any assignment and for any academic work. It forms part of good academic practice.
Citing authoritative sources will: back up your argument; acknowledge your sources; help you to avoid plagiarism!
Your Programme tutors will provide direction on referencing styles and stipulations for your work: you should always refer to them in the first instance about referencing requirements.
This section indicates where you can learn more and find help with referencing in general.
Use the online Cite them right online resource to find out about the principles, practice and details of referencing. Look for the Tutorials, as well as sections on the basics of referencing, understanding plagiarism and paraphrasing, amongst others.
The Academic Skills Gateway also has material on Effective Referencing in its Research Skills section.
The iCite Guide is the UoB Library Services' online reference source for referencing in different styles.
Each main style - Harvard, Vancouver etc - has A-Z examples on-screen and summary information.
Remember to select the correct referencing style. Always confirm with your Programme tutors regarding referencing requirements for your work including specific styles: particularly if the recommended style is not one of the generic styles on the iCite Guide (or Cite them right online).
If you cannot find exactly the example you are looking for, then think of general principles and which format might be closest. For example, a PDF document which you found online could possibly be referenced in the same way as a book, if it has the same elements: author[s], title, publisher, date (and place) of publication.
Cite them right by Pears and Shields (2019) is a standard text about the principles and practice of referencing.
This has been developed into an excellent online resource. It is available to University staff and students on- and off-campus. Login (top right) as University of Birmingham: you may be required to enter your personal Uni login details.
Choose different format such as journals, books, digital and internet to see how to reference specific items. Remember to select the correct referencing style: if you have been given a specific style that is not one of these, then refer back to the information given by your Programme tutors.
Pears, R. and Shields, G.J. (2019) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. London:Macmillan International Higher Education.
Referencing software is available to help you with your referencing.
Endnote Online is a web-based resource which UoB members can set up from the Web of Science database. It is recommended for undergraduate and taught postgraduate students.
For an overview of referencing software programmes, see the Library's iCite Guide pages.